What is TBI?

What is TBI?

Traumatic brain injury or TBI is an insult to the brain, not of degenerative or congenital nature but caused by an external force that may produce a diminished or altered state of consciousness, which results in an impairment of cognitive abilities or physical functioning. It can also result in the disturbance of behavioral or emotional functioning.

What is the difference between TBI and ABI?

ABI or acquired brain injury is an injury to the brain which is not hereditary, congenital or degenerative. Causes may include oxygen deprivation, surgery, infectious diseases, toxins, stroke, and heart attack, as well as trauma. TBI is a form of acquired brain injury.

How prevalent is TBI?

Injury is the leading cause of mortality among Americans under 45 years of age, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) is responsible for the majority of these deaths. It is estimated that TBI claims more than 50, 000 lives each year.

5.3 million Americans ( slightly more than 2% of the population) and 150,000 Georgians are living with the disabilities as result of brain injury.

Each year, 1 million Americans and 48,250 Georgians are treated for TBI and released from emergency rooms. About 230,000 Americans are hospitalized as a result of TBI and survive. Of these, 80,000 individuals sustain moderate to severe brain injuries resulting in life long disabling conditions ( on average, 219 each day). 2,100 of these are Georgia residents.

Every 15 seconds, someone in the U.S. sustains a traumatic brain injury.

After one traumatic brain injury, the risk for a second injury is three times greater; and after a second TBI, the risk for a third injury is eight times greater.

What are the most COMMON causes?

Vehicle crashes are the leading cause of brain injuries (50%).

Falls are the second leading cause, followed by firearms, sports/recreation activities, and violence, partially gun violence. 

Who is AT RISK?

Most TBI's occur among children, adolescents, young adults, and those over the age of 75.

Males aged 14-24 years are at the greatest risk, more than females due to differences in risk exposure and lifestyle.

Children are especially at risk in the afternoon hours after school, weekends, and summertime, with most injuries occurring on the roads or at home.



  • Short and long-term memory loss
  • Difficulties with concentration
  • Difficulties with communication and planning
  • Spatial disorientation


  • Seizures
  • Muscle spasticity
  • Vision, hearing, smell, and taste loss
  • Speech impairment
  • Headaches
  • Sleep disorders
  • Reduced endurance


  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Mood swings
  • Denial
  • Sexual Difficulties
  • Emotional instability
  • Egocentricity
  • Impulsivity/Disinhibition
  • Agitation
  • Isolation


The Brain Injury Association of Georgia aims to provide our community with top notch resources and help to those suffering from brain injuries.